February 1, 2015

A 1967 outbreak of the “Marburg” virus (MARV) first brought to light the dangers of viral hemorrhagic fevers caused by viruses of the filoviridae family. After an outbreak in 2012 a death from a MARV infection was recently noted in Uganda. Other members of the filovirus family, namely the Ebola viruses (EBOV), are even more lethal. The members of this genus are named after the location of their major outbreaks, Zaire (ZEBOV), Sudan (SEBOV), Reston, VA (RESTOV) and Cote d’Ivoire (CIEBOV). Numerous outbreaks of viruses have been observed in the last 40 years (WHO). The most devastating outbreak so far was caused by a mutated version of ZEBOV. It first appeared in December 2013 and has spread through several countries in Western Africa, Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. It has been spreading in an uncontrolled fashion and has led to several thousand infections and deaths (WHO). Travelers infected with the disease have reached Europe and the US leading to secondary transfers of the disease to nurses in Spain and the US (WHO). Neither therapeutic drugs nor vaccines are presently available to combat any of these infections.

In November 2014, Greffex initiated discussions with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) about the construction of a GreVAX-based Ebola vaccine. Due to the earlier success with GreMERSfl and GreFluVie, Greffex was invited by NIAID to deliver an Ebola vaccine candidate to be tested in nonhuman primates. Greffex initiated the construction of its GreZEBm vaccine candidate. It was completed within one month. In parallel, the Company’s scientists developed a stringent testing protocol that took into consideration the medical realities found in Western Africa. Their goal was closely to approximate future clinical trials. In early February 2015, Greffex delivered its GreVAX-based GreZEBm vaccine to NIAID for these protective studies in NHPs.


January 9, 2015

In studies sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), Greffex’s GreFluVie vaccine proved to be highly effective in protecting animals against H5N1. Mice were immunized in a prime/boost schedule before being challenged with a lethal dose of the pandemic avian influenza virus. At the low dose of 3×108 genome equivalents, the vaccine proved to be highly effective when given by intramuscular, subcutaneous, and intranasal routes. Intramuscular injection resulted in a rate of survival of 100%.


September 4, 2014

In the summer of 2014, Greffex was asked by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) for a sample of its vaccine for MERS-CoV so that it could run tests to evaluate the production of neutralizing antibodies.

On a very tight schedule (less than two months) Greffex produced, purified, and vaccinated animals with the GreMERSfi. Mice were immunized in a prime/boost schedule with a small dose (approx. 3×108 genome equivalents).  A standard micro-neutralization assay was used to quantify the humoral immune responses. All of the animals raised significant levels of neutralizing antibodies. 75% of the animals presented with very high antibody titers in the range of 640 to more than 2,560 (the test limit).  In light of these results, the NIAID has invited Greffex to request further trials under its sponsorship.